South Korea Financial Regulator Classifies NFTs As Virtual Assets

South Korea has taken a significant step in regulating the rapidly evolving world of non-fungible tokens (NFTs). The Financial Services Commission (FSC), the country’s top financial watchdog, has issued new guidelines that redefine the treatment of certain NFTs, aligning them more closely with virtual assets like cryptocurrencies. This move aims to bring clarity and order to the burgeoning NFT market as the country prepares to implement the “Virtual Asset User Protection Act” by July 19, 2024.

Mass-Produced NFTs Under Scrutiny

The FSC’s guidelines specify that NFTs will be classified as virtual assets if they exhibit characteristics such as mass production, divisibility, and usage as a means of payment. This classification stems from concerns that NFTs issued in large quantities could lose their uniqueness, making them more akin to traditional cryptocurrencies. For instance, if an NFT collection comprises a million units, it is highly probable that these tokens could be used for transactions, thereby necessitating regulation similar to that of other virtual assets.

Jeon Yo-seop, head of the FSC’s Financial Innovation Planning Division, highlighted that high-quantity NFT collections are likely to be used as payment methods due to the volume of transactions they could generate. However, the FSC has also emphasized a case-by-case approach to distinguish these NFTs, ensuring that there is no blanket standard for interpretation.

Differentiation from General NFTs

Not all NFTs will fall under the virtual asset category. NFTs that are non-transferable and hold minimal economic value, such as proof-of-transaction tokens or digital certificates, will continue to be classified as general NFTs. This distinction ensures that collectibles and tokens used for specific purposes, like ticketing or certification, are not subjected to the same rigorous regulations as those used for payments or investments.

The new guidelines also propose that NFTs could be treated as securities if they meet the criteria outlined in South Korea’s Capital Markets Act. This could include NFTs that offer a return on investment or represent ownership in an asset or company. Such a classification would subject these NFTs to additional regulatory requirements designed to protect investors and maintain market integrity.

One of the notable aspects of the FSC’s new rules is the provision for NFTs classified as virtual assets to earn interest when deposited into crypto exchanges. This contrasts with regular NFTs and central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), which are excluded from this benefit. This move aims to provide more financial utility to NFTs used in broader applications, enhancing their attractiveness to investors and users alike.

Compliance and Penalties

Businesses dealing with NFTs must now carefully review these guidelines to determine whether their tokens qualify as virtual assets. Those that do will need to register as virtual asset business operators under the “Specific Financial Information Act.” This registration encompasses activities involving the sale, exchange, transfer, storage, and brokerage of NFTs. Non-compliance with these regulations can result in severe criminal penalties, underscoring the importance of adherence.

To assist businesses in navigating these new regulations, the FSC offers consultation services and plans to provide specific examples and case judgments. This support is crucial in helping businesses understand the regulatory landscape and ensure compliance while continuing to innovate within the NFT space.


South Korea’s new guidelines on NFTs represent a significant shift in the regulatory approach to digital assets. By classifying certain NFTs as virtual assets and introducing measures to protect users and maintain market order, the FSC aims to foster a more secure and transparent NFT market. As the “Virtual Asset User Protection Act” comes into effect, businesses and investors will need to adapt to these changes, ensuring that they stay compliant while leveraging the growing opportunities in the NFT ecosystem.

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